This paper summarizes indigenous mining methods used to collect metal ores in precolonial southern africa, south of 15is. Pdf south african iron and steel industrial evolution. Sir michael lawrence davis born 15 february 1958 is a british politician and former south african businessman, former chief executive and treasurer of the conservative party and the chief executive ceo of xstrata plc, an angloswiss multinational mining company, until its merger with glencore in 20. It harbours the worlds largest mineral reserves of platinum, gold, diamonds, chromite, manganese, and vanadium1. Although the origins of iron working in africa have been the subject of scholarly interest since the 1860s, it is still not known whether this technology diffused into subsaharan africa from the mediterranean region, or whether it was invented there quite independently of iron working elsewhere. Pdf metallurgy, and mining metal ores, was first introduced to southern africa about. The brazilian mining corporation vale is the largest iron ore producer in the world. South africas iron ore industry institute for strategy harvard.
Iron age metal fabrication technology in southern africa. Eugene cairncross, sophia kisting, mariette liefferink, david van wyk february 20 we must remember the history of mining in south africa, of cheap black labour, racism and exploitation. As an example, we may quote the 10 biggest iron mines in the world. Factors that favour and hinder mining in south africa products. Article pdf available in journal south african institute of mining and metallurgy. South african iron age was defined by masons in 1952. The topic of early iron metallurgy in subsaharan africa encompasses both studies of the technology and archaeology of indigenous iron production, and also an understanding of the role that iron production played in african societies before european colonization some evidence from historical linguistics suggests that iron smelting may have been practiced by the nok culture of nigeria from as. Examples concerning the precolonial exploitation of iron, copper, tin, and gold have been. Case study on extractive industries prepared for the lancet commission on global governance report from south africa authors. Mining prospecting in south maps as tools for effective. Exploration work suggested there could be 500 million tonnes of ore. Pdf the paper focuses on the evolution of the south african iron and steel industry from the industrial. Literature used for this study includes text books. In certain respects the articles in this book endeavour to provide a response to one or other of.
These activities are often both illegal and environmentally damaging, and dangerous for. These methods, for the purposes of discussion, are divided into sections in order of increasing organizational complexity, from scavenging, which only required basic equipment and a relatively minimal division of labour, to underground mines, which necessitated. Check out the new look and enjoy easier access to your favorite features. Mining has impacted the country of south africa making it number 2 in foreign exchange earner in the world. Nevertheless south africa has a mining history of an epic nature. The golden crown versus 100 years of mining voice of south. Nonoil sectors, including mining and metal industry, have emerged as key drivers of growth in the last 10 years. The breadth of coverage of mining in general in south africa sacrificed depth in this history. Minings share of the gross value added gva by all sectors of the south african economy in 2012 was no more than 5. In terms of employment, the mining industry reported an annual decrease of over 6% from december 2008 to december 2009 2.
Synopsis the iron ore mining in south africa to 2020 report comprehensively covers the countrys historical and forecast data on iron ore production by. Digging deep describes the establishment and unparalleled growth of mining, tracing the history of the industry from its humble beginnings where copper was first mined on a commercial basis in namaqualand, in the cape colony, in the early 1850s, to the discovery and exploitation of the countrys other major mineral commodities. Southern africa and east africa top this, with many countries topping over 7% growth. Pdf iron ore mine reconciliationa case study from sishen. It proposes a mining sector contribution to economic activity in the region. We also follow case studies that, in our view, provide good examples that support. The impressive stone ruins of great zimbabwe, located in south eastern zimbabwe, are testament to the power and technological achievements of these more complex societies. I understand that south africa has a troubled history with mining ever since the introduction of the hut tax in the early 1900s.
There is tremendous interest in africa for growth opportunities due to the continents wealth of minerals and over 1,800 mining projects in various stages of development or operation in south africa alone. In 2009 south africa was the fourth largest diamond industry in the world. Chamber of mines of south africa, 1977 mine valuation 472 pages. South africa is one of the worlds and africas most important mining countries in terms of the variety and quantity of minerals produced. Goldinsouthafrica the southern african institute of mining. Africa, christianity, civilizations, colonialism, imperialism, independence, islam, sahara, transatlantic slave trade. Many african countries have vast iron ore deposits that are not yet mined. Globally the financial performance of mining companies improved significantly from the previous year. This is, in fact, the second issue of industry and environment devoted. The golden crown versus 100 years of mining the heritage. Men did the mining and the actual smelting at the furnace. Teba limited is a service organization primarily responsible for the recruitment of mineworkers for the south african mining industry. Opportunities and challenges facing the south african mining. The following books have recently been added to the rare.
Published by statistics south africa, private bag x44. That position was to a large extent mirrored by south african bulk commodity producers with iron. This is an authentic quirky small book of memoirs of an immigrant miner from germany who worked underground as a miner at the best known of the witwatersrand mines, crown mines, for some twenty years. In 2007 privately owned british firm mining projects development said it had found large deposits of iron ore at the zanaga site in lekoumou region, in the south of the country. The south african mining landscape overview the 2018 financial year proved to be a challenging year for south african mining companies. History of southern africa south african history online. Mining in south africa was once the main driving force behind the history and development of.
More detailed history of iron mining in cape town, south africa crusher south. Opportunities and challenges facing the south african. The ruined cities of mashonaland, books of rhodesia, bulawayo 1969. Gold mining has become one the main factors to the growth of south africa. Security challenges shaping the future south african army 2007, ed. The book is divided into four sections, with opaque headings, the seekers and the search, the nation builders, miners and methods and towards the future.
Boosting artisanal and smallscale mining 4bulletin harnessing the potential of asm to improve rural livelihoods, to stimulate entrepreneurship in a socially responsible manner, to promote local and integrated national development as well as regional cooperation the africa mining vision the term artisan and smallscale mining asm. Apr, 2000 the south african mining industry has been in continuous decline for 2 decades. The history of mining for metals in southern africa south of. In this years edition of state of mining in africa in the spotlight, we take a further look at, and reflect back on, our observations to see how the broad industry is progressing. Though minings contribution to the national gdp has fallen from 21% in 1970 to 6% in 2011, it still represents almost. From the precolonial to the modern day toyin falola and tyler fleming department of history, university of texas at austin, usa.
Department of mines, union of south africa, pretoria, 1949. Impacts from mining mining in south africa takes place both on surface and underground. Statistics south africa published by statistics south africa, private bag x44, pretoria 0001. A very well researched books which lays bare the history of mining in south africa which now spans over 160 years. Nov 06, 2012 a profile of iron ore mining in south africa with directories of companies, people, industry sectors, projects, facilities, news and events. The potential for a burgeoning mining industry across these two emerging regions is immense. However, none of the conditions mentioned are unique to south africa or other african countries. Not only has the country given birth to some great mines, and mining houses, these developments have resulted in very strong and innovative engineering and consultancy companies. South america, asia, and africa, often with less stringent mining laws and. African mines handbook 12 months membership interact. For background on sustainable development as this relates to mining in south africa, please refer to section 2. Region by region across the continent, it provides country overviews and maps, along with.
Since mining is a problematic sector inherently in any country, there is much to work with in any. Well organised charpters on year after year discoveries and development, and it brings us to understand the immense contribution of south africas mining industry to its general indistrialization. Iron ore mining in south africa to 2020 pr newswire. Kumba iron ore was formed in it is a fully empowered company in terms of the 2014 equity ownership requirements set out in the south african mining. As a leading global manufacturer of crushing, grinding and mining equipments, we offer advanced, reasonable solutions for any sizereduction requirements including, factors that favour and hinder mining in south africa, quarry, aggregate, and different kinds of minerals. South africa description and travel restless jungle new york. Eugene cairncross, sophia kisting, mariette liefferink, david van wyk february 20 we must remember the history of mining in. Pdf precolonial mining in southern africa researchgate.
Mining and minerals, integral to modern society the south african mining industry the future the global mining industry back to the boom rsa coal mining sector 182 129 64 26 21 21 20 19 18 3 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 china usa australia brazil south africa canada russia india chile colombia the global top ten mining countries. We also follow case studies that, in our view, provide good examples that support our previous observations and suggest the potential for a. An overview of producer services in the mining industry in. Geology and the distribution of gold mines southern africa has an abundance of gold deposits, most of which were formed during the archaean period of the precambrian between 3 500 and 2 500 million years ago.
Mining grew with discovery of diamonds and increased with the discovery of gold. Fossil mammals of the vaal river deposits by h b s cooke this book is part iii of memoir 35 published by the geological survey, department of mines, union of south africa. Surface mining is either by strip mining, usually using draglines to remove the overburden and later replace it in the minedout area, or by opencasting, with the overburden being removed and dumped elsewhere. South africa is one of the worlds leading mining and mineralprocessing countries. The following books have recently been added to the rare book collection. The south african mining industry has been in continuous decline for 2 decades. The south african coal and iron mining company of 1882 was the. Trade in gold and copper enriched mapungubwe, near the zimbabwe border in presentday south africa, and ingombe ilede, in present day zambia. Injune1936,owenletcherproduceda580pagevolume3entitledthegoldminesof southern africa, beingthehistory, technology, and. Countries chief mining engineer anglogold ghana senior mining engineer anglo coal australia senior manager barrick gold canada. In our study of south african producer services, the recurring difficulty of aggregation and disaggregation of economic sectors has further. The mining industries employing basotho miners are mainly in the free state, mpumalanga, north west, limpopo and the gauteng provinces, south africa iom, 2007.
Indigenous farming communities prospected for iron ore and malachite, and later gold. Table 1 illustrates africas mineral potential and production in global terms. There has been a noticeable decline in gold production extraction and mining contribution to south africa s gdp. Artisanal and smallscale mining more than million people in the south are directly engaged in smallscale mining many of whom are women and children with another 80 to 100 million depending on it for some aspect of thei livelihood. Limited was the first ironproducing company in the history of the south african iron and steel. Mining accounts for up to 60% of south africas exports, which is vital for bringing in cash into the country.
The legacy of radium and uranium mines in europe is used to. She has been a member of the international study group of the united nations economic commission for africa on the revision of mining codes in africa addis abbaba 20072009 and the advisory group to the canadian government on corporate social responsibility in the extractive sector in developing countries 2007. The minerals it exports are vital to the economies of the world for manufacturing. If we look at marikana as a microcosm of south africa and really of mining in. After leaving xstrata, he formed the mining venture x2 resources and, after making. Case study on extractive industries prepared for the lancet.
Pdf 2000 years of indigenous mining and metallurgy in southern. Factors that favour and hinder mining in south africa. Selected writings by steve biko, country of my skull. Botswana tn \, republic cape province 0 0 locality plan scalel0000 0 100 200km. The south african coal and iron mining company of 1882 was the first iron. The importance of the mining industry can be gauged from a look at some figures for example, in 2009 the south african mining industry had over 1 000 mines and 483 212 employees. Everywhere else in africa south of the sahara, the use of iron succeeds the use of. Mine digital magazine media information mining publications. Coal and iron ore in particular continued their growth path and. Nostudyofgoldproduction insouth africa can possiblycoveritall. Mining in southern africa has a long precolonial history. Mining historically, south africa has been a leading global supplier of minerals and mineral products, and it retains an important role in mining and minerals demonstrated by 55 minerals being produced from some 11 mines in 2005.
Case study on extractive industries prepared for the. Morocco and zimbabwe also produce ore, but only for local use. Our loyal readership is made up of executives, senior managers and buyers from 189 countries. Metal working was introduced to southern africa about 2000 years ago by black. The african countries in which iron ore production for export and local use is most prevalent are south africa, algeria and mauritania. United states geological survey, 2005 minerals yearbook. I just want to steer this away from identity politics for a second, because somebody will try it. Iron ore is mined and produced in countries around the world including china, australia, brazil, india, russia, ukraine, south africa, united states, iran, canada, sweden and kazakhstan. Historically, the mining industry in south africa has undertaken its own research.
In the general history of africa a major contribution by unesco to an objective. Over 30% of the worlds global mineral reserves are found in africa, yet less than 5% of the total global mineral exploration and extraction budget is invested in the continent. Wbg are tasked with lending money to stimulate investment in the global south. Producer 1980 1985 witwatersrand mines 1750 6896 nonwitwatersrand mines 3759 3754 banks 258 753.
Journal of the south african institute of mining and metallurgy, 75 1975, pp. South african mining, coal, gold and base minerals. Actively pursuing economic diversification away from oil and gas by encouraging domestic and foreign investment. Minerals and africas development africa mining vision. Significance of the mining sector in africa africa is well endowed with mineral resources. The following books have recently been added to the rare book.582 171 888 922 1161 540 1475 7 603 1180 1310 1114 208 563 1117 1378 730 580 1381 451 772 443 368 1338 1420 398 229 284 505 936 1241 957 882 893 884 1110 1116 150